# Potential Destruction Capacity of a Hypersonic Metallic Sphere

A kinetic weapon is a type of weapon that uses the energy of motion to cause damage to a target. Kinetic weapons typically operate by accelerating a projectile to a high velocity and then striking the target, using the kinetic energy of the projectile to inflict damage. The effectiveness of a kinetic weapon is influenced by a number of factors, including the speed, weight, and density of the projectile. Each of these factors can play a significant role in determining the amount of damage that a kinetic weapon can inflict on a target.

Hypersonic speed is generally defined as any speed above Mach 5, which is five times the speed of sound or approximately 3,836 miles per hour (6,174 kilometers per hour) at sea level and standard temperature and pressure.

This means that an object traveling at hypersonic speeds can cover vast distances in a very short amount of time. For example, at hypersonic speeds, an object could travel from New York to Los Angeles in less than 30 minutes. Hypersonic speeds are of great interest to scientists and engineers because they offer the potential for high-speed transportation, advanced military capabilities, and new opportunities for space exploration.

In 2019, the US Navy confirmed the authenticity of three videos showing encounters between Navy fighter jets and UAPs. In one of the videos, an object is seen moving at an incredible speed, estimated to be about 13,000 miles per hour.

13,000 miles per hour is a very high speed, equivalent to approximately 20,921 kilometers per hour or 5.81 kilometers per second. To put this speed into perspective, it is more than 17 times the speed of sound, which is approximately 767 miles per hour or 1,234 kilometers per hour. At this speed, an object could travel from one side of the United States to the other in less than 20 minutes. This would be equivalent to approximately Mach 17.

The maximum speed that a human can tolerate without being killed or suffering permanent injury is typically estimated to be around Mach 5 or 6 (about 3,800 to 4,600 miles per hour or 6,125 to 7,400 kilometers per hour) for a very brief time period.

At speeds above this range, the forces of acceleration and deceleration can cause serious harm to the human body, including loss of consciousness, damage to internal organs, and even death. Specialized equipment such as pressurized suits, g-suits, and other life-support systems are needed to protect pilots and astronauts from the extreme conditions encountered at high speeds and altitudes.

**Mass of a Sphere**

The Betz sphere is a metallic sphere that was found by the Betz family in Fort George Island, Florida in 1974. The sphere is reported to have a diameter of about 8 inches (20 cm) and weighed approximately 21.34 pounds (9.68 kg).

The weight of a solid metal sphere with a diameter of 8 inches (20 cm) would depend on its material and density. Assuming a density of 8000 kg/m^3, which is the density of steel, the weight of the sphere can be calculated using the formula for the volume of a sphere:

Volume of sphere = (4/3) x Ï€ x (radius)^3

where the radius is half the diameter, or 4 inches (10 cm).

Plugging in the values, we get:

Volume of sphere = (4/3) x Ï€ x (10 cm)^3 = 4,188.79 cm^3

Next, we can calculate the mass of the sphere using its volume and density:

Mass of sphere = density x volume = 8000 kg/m^3 x 0.00418879 m^3 = 33.511 kg

Therefore, a solid metal sphere with a diameter of about 8 inches (20 cm) and a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would weigh approximately 33.511 kg (or about 73.84 pounds).

Therefore the Betz sphere was not a solid steel sphere and more represents the density of Titanium as a proxy. Let us use Titanium as a proxy for density.

- Aluminum: Density of 2,700 kg/m^3. An 8-inch diameter sphere would have a volume of 0.002031 m^3, so the estimated weight would be 5.807 kg or about 12.80 pounds.
**Titanium: Density of 4,540 kg/m^3. An 8-inch diameter sphere would have a volume of 0.002031 m^3, so the estimated weight would be 9.227 kg or about 20.34 pounds.**- Magnesium: Density of 1,738 kg/m^3. An 8-inch diameter sphere would have a volume of 0.002031 m^3, so the estimated weight would be 3.552 kg or about 7.82 pounds.

**Formula for Kinetic Energy**

The formula for kinetic energy (0.5 x mass x velocity^2) is a fundamental principle in physics and has been known for centuries. It is a simple application of the laws of motion and has been used in various forms by many scientists and mathematicians throughout history.

The specific form of the formula as we know it today, which includes the 0.5 factor and the use of the squared velocity term, can be traced back to the work of the 17th-century scientist Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who developed the concept of vis viva (living force) to describe the motion of objects. However, the formula is often attributed to the British scientist Thomas Young, who published a paper on the subject in 1807.

**Calculation:** If an object had a diameter of about 8 inches (20 cm) and weighed approximately 21.34 pounds (9.68 kg) and was travelling at 13,000 miles per hour and hit the ground what would happen?

We can estimate the amount of kinetic energy that the object would have using the following formula:

Kinetic energy = 0.5 x mass x velocity^2

Plugging in the values, we get:

Kinetic energy = 0.5 x 9.68 kg x (13,000 mph)^2

Converting the velocity from mph to meters per second, we get:

Kinetic energy = 0.5 x 9.68 kg x (5,803 m/s)^2

Solving for kinetic energy, we get:

Kinetic energy = 1.38 x 10^9 joules

Therefore, if an object with a diameter of about 8 inches (20 cm) and a weight of approximately 21.34 pounds (9.68 kg) were traveling at 13,000 miles per hour and hit the ground, it would hit with approximately 1.38 billion joules of kinetic energy. To put this into perspective, this is roughly equivalent to the energy released by a small explosive.

**What happens if the Sphere is 20 feet in diameter?**

If a Titanium sphere is reported to have a diameter of about 8 inches (20 cm) and weighed approximately 21.34 pounds (9.68 kg). How much would a 20 foot diameter sphere weigh of Titanium?

To estimate the weight of a 20-foot diameter sphere made of titanium, we can use the fact that the weight of a solid metal sphere is proportional to its volume. The formula for the volume of a sphere is:

V = (4/3) x Ï€ x r^3

where V is the volume, Ï€ is the mathematical constant pi (approximately equal to 3.14159), and r is the radius of the sphere.

If we assume that the density of titanium is constant (around 4,540 kg/m^3), then the mass (weight) of the sphere can be calculated as:

M = density x V

Let’s start by calculating the volume of the 20-foot sphere:

Radius = 20 feet / 2 = 10 feet Volume = (4/3) x Ï€ x (10 feet)^3 = 4,188.79 ft^3

Next, we can calculate the mass of the sphere using its volume and density:

M = density x V = 4,540 kg/m^3 x 4,188.79 ft^3 x (0.3048 m/ft)^3 = 3,743,143 kg

Therefore, a solid titanium sphere with a diameter of about 20 feet and a density of 4,540 kg/m^3 would weigh approximately 3,743,143 kg, or about 8,254,062 pounds.

**If you have a titanium object weighing 3,745.4 metric tonnes traveling at Mach 17 and it hits the earth, how much energy is released**?

To estimate the energy released when a 3,745.4 metric tonne object made of titanium traveling at Mach 17 hits the Earth, we can use the formula for kinetic energy:

KE = 0.5 x m x v^2

where KE is the kinetic energy, m is the mass of the object, and v is its velocity. Note that we need to convert the velocity from Mach to meters per second to use this formula.

Mach 17 is approximately 20,921 kilometers per hour or 5.81 kilometers per second. Converting this to meters per second, we get:

Velocity = 5.81 km/s x 1000 m/km = 5,810 m/s

Plugging in the values, we get:

KE = 0.5 x 3,745,400 kg x (5,810 m/s)^2 = 306,803,955,100,000 joules, or approximately 307 terajoules.

This is an enormous amount of energy, equivalent to the detonation of many large nuclear weapons. For reference, the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima during World War II is estimated to have released around 63 terajoules of energy, so the impact of a 3,745.4 metric tonne object traveling at Mach 17 would release several times more energy than that.

The impact of a single 20 foot diameter sphere would be devastating.